How Some Bacteria Colonize the Gut

A section of mouse colon with gut bacteria (center, in green). Credit: S. Melanie Lee, Caltech; Zbigniew Mikulski and Klaus Ley, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
A section of mouse colon with gut bacteria (center, in green) residing within a protective pocket. Credit: S. Melanie Lee, Caltech; Zbigniew Mikulski and Klaus Ley, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.

Have you ever felt that your gut was trying to tell you something? The guts of germ-free mice have told scientists a few new things about our resident microorganisms. By studying a genus of bacteria called Bacteriodes that live in the gastrointestinal tract, Sarkis Mazmanian of the California Institute of Technology discovered how Bacteriodes species stake their claim in a mouse’s gut. Mazmanian and his colleagues introduced different species of Bacteriodes into germ-free mice to learn how the microbes competed and found that most of them peacefully co-existed. However, when microbes of a species that was already present were introduced, they couldn’t take up residence. Further investigation revealed that Bacteriodes species, due to a set of specific genes, can live in tiny pockets or “crypts” of the colon, where they are sheltered from antibiotics and infectious microbes passing through. Understanding how these microorganisms colonize could help devise ways to correct for abnormal changes in bacterial communities that are associated with disorders like inflammatory bowel disease.

This work also was funded by NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Learn more:

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