We asked the heads of our scientific divisions to tell us about some of the big questions in fundamental biomedical science that researchers are investigating with NIGMS support. This article is the first in an occasional series that will explore these questions and explain how pursuing the answers could advance understanding of important biological processes.
Cells are faced with many decisions: When’s the best time to produce a new protein? To grow and split into two? To treat another cell as an invader? Scientists are working to understand how cells make these and many other decisions, and how these decisions contribute to health and disease.
An active area of research on cell decisions focuses on allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish its own cells from those of another. Immune cells use a system called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to identify which cells belong to the body and which are foreign. The particular set of MHC proteins on the outer surface of a cell helps immune cells decide whether it does not belong and should be attacked.
But the system isn’t perfect. Invading pathogens can go undetected, and the body can mistake its own cells for intruders. Continue reading