When a bone breaks, it might slice axons—the part of nerve cells that sends information to other cells—and potentially cause loss of mobility or feeling. Prior research had shown that a damaged nerve cell could repair such an injury through the regrowth of axons. Scientists at Penn State University wondered if dendrites—the part of nerve cells that receive information from other nerve cells—could also regenerate. To find out, Melissa Rolls and her team cut off the dendrites from nerve cells in fruit flies. Instead of dying, as was expected, the cells regrew dendrites. The research also revealed that dendrite regeneration happens independently of axon regeneration, leading investigators to believe there are two separate regeneration pathways: one for axons and one for dendrites. Learning more about this new dendrite regrowth pathway might one day lead to new approaches for healing injured nerve cells, including those damaged after a stroke.