Mighty Mitochondria

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Mitochondria from the heart muscle cell of a rat.
Mitochondria (red) from the heart muscle cell of a rat. Nearly all our cells have these structures. Credit: Thomas Deerinck, National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research Exit icon.

Meet mitochondria: cellular compartments, or organelles, that are best known as the powerhouses that convert energy from the food we eat into energy that runs a range of biological processes.

As you can see in this close-up of mitochondria from a rat’s heart muscle cell, the organelles have an inner membrane that folds in many places (and that appears here as striations). This folding vastly increases the surface area for energy production. Nearly all our cells have mitochondria, but cells with higher energy demands have more. For instance, a skin cell has just a few hundred, while the cell pictured here has about 5,000.

Scientists are discovering there’s more to mitochondria than meets the eye, especially when it comes to understanding and treating disease.

Read more about mitochondria in this Inside Life Science article.

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