Animal Cells ‘Reach Out and Touch’ to Communicate

Cytonemes in the fruit fly tracheal system.
Threadlike cytonemes (at right) convey signals between cells in the developing fruit fly tracheal system. Credit: Sougata Roy, University of California, San Francisco. View larger image

Scientists have long known that multicellular organisms use biological molecules produced by one cell and sensed by another to transmit messages that, for instance, guide proper development of organs and tissues. But it’s been a puzzle as to how molecules dumped out into the fluid-filled spaces between cells can precisely home in on their targets.

Using living tissue from fruit flies, a team led by Thomas Kornberg of the University of California, San Francisco, has shown that typical cells in animals can talk to each other via long, thin cell extensions called cytonemes (Latin for “cell threads”) that may span the length of 50 or 100 cells. The point of contact between a cytoneme and its target cell acts as a communications bridge between the two cells.

Until now, only nerve cells (neurons) were known to communicate this way. “This is an exciting finding,” says NIGMS’ Tanya Hoodbhoy. “Neurons are not the only ‘reach out and touch someone’ cells.”

This work also was funded by NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

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