Tag: DNA

In Other Words: How Cells Express Themselves

0 comments

When you encounter the word expression, you may think of a smile, a grimace, or another look on someone’s face. But when biologists talk about expression, they typically mean the process of gene expression—when the information in a gene directs protein synthesis. Proteins are essential for virtually every process in the human body.

Below the title “Expression: In Other Words,” two images are separated by a jagged line. On the left are several cartoon representations of a man with different facial expressions. On the right is a cartoon depiction of DNA and an arrow pointing to a folded protein. Under the images, text reads: Did you know? When biologists talk about expression, they’re typically referring to gene expression, where the information in a gene directs the building of a protein.
Credit: NIGMS.
Continue reading “In Other Words: How Cells Express Themselves”

In Other Words: Translation Isn’t Only for Languages

0 comments

In everyday use, most people understand translation to mean converting words from one language to another. But when biologists talk about translation, they mean the process of making proteins based on the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA). Proteins are essential for virtually every process in our bodies, from transporting oxygen to defending against infection, so translation is vital for keeping us alive and healthy.

Below the title “Translation: In Other Words,” two images are separated by a jagged line. On the left, is a large speech bubble with the word “hello” surrounded by smaller speech bubbles with greetings in other languages, and on the right is a ribosome producing a protein. Under the images, text reads, “Did you know? In biomedical science, translation refers to the process of making proteins based on genetic information encoded in messenger RNA.”
Credit: NIGMS.
Continue reading “In Other Words: Translation Isn’t Only for Languages”

Quiz: Are You a Genetics Genius?

3 comments

Genes are segments of DNA. They contain instructions for building one or more molecules that help the body work. Researchers in the field of genetics study genes and heredity—how certain traits are passed from parents to their offspring through DNA. NIGMS supports many scientists who investigate the genetics of people and research organisms to better understand human health and disease.

Take our quiz below to test how much you know about genetics. For more quizzes and other fun learning tools, visit our activities and multimedia webpage.

Continue reading “Quiz: Are You a Genetics Genius?”

Gone Fishing: Teaching Bioinformatics With Skate DNA

1 comment

As computers have advanced over the past few decades, researchers have been able to work with larger and more complex datasets than ever before. The science of using computers to investigate biological data is called bioinformatics, and it’s helping scientists make important discoveries, such as finding versions of genes that affect a person’s risk for developing various types of cancer. Many scientists believe that almost all biologists will use bioinformatics to some degree in the future.

A cluster of various-sized dots connected by glowing lines.
Bioinformatics software was used to create this representation of a biological network. Credit: Benjamin King, University of Maine.

However, bioinformatics isn’t always included in college biology programs, and many of today’s researchers received their training before bioinformatics was widely taught. To address these gaps, the bioinformatics cores of the five Northeast IDeA Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBREs)—located in Maine, Rhode Island, Delaware, Vermont, and New Hampshire—have worked together to offer basic bioinformatics training to students and researchers. The collaboration started in 2009 with a project where researchers sequenced the genome of a fish called the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and used the data to develop trainings.

Continue reading “Gone Fishing: Teaching Bioinformatics With Skate DNA”

An Enlightening Protein

0 comments
A fly glowing green. A fruit fly expressing GFP. Credit: Jay Hirsh, University of Virginia.

During the holiday season, twinkling lights are a common sight. But no matter what time of the year, you can see colorful glows in many biology labs. Scientists have enabled many organisms to light up in the dark—from cells to fruit flies and Mexican salamanders. These glowing organisms help researchers better understand basic cell processes because their DNA has been edited to express molecules such as green fluorescent protein.

Continue reading “An Enlightening Protein”

Q&A With Nobel Laureate and CRISPR Scientist Jennifer Doudna

0 comments
A headshot of Dr. Doudna. Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D. Credit: University of California, Berkeley.

The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D., and Emmanuelle Charpentier, Ph.D., for the development of the gene-editing tool CRISPR. Dr. Doudna shared her thoughts on the award and answered questions about CRISPR in a live chat with NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. Here are a few highlights from the interview.

Q: How did you find out that you won the Nobel Prize?

A: It’s a little bit of an embarrassing story. I slept through a very important phone call and finally woke up when a reporter called me. I was just coming out of a deep sleep, and the reporter was asking, “What do you think about the Nobel?” And I said, “I don’t know anything about it. Who won it?” I thought they were asking for comments on somebody else who won it. And she said, “Oh my gosh! You don’t know! You won it!”

Continue reading “Q&A With Nobel Laureate and CRISPR Scientist Jennifer Doudna”

Scientist Interview: Investigating Circadian Rhythms With Michael W. Young

1 comment

Sudden changes to our schedules, like the end of daylight saving time this Sunday or flying across time zones, often leave us feeling off kilter because they disrupt our bodies’ circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. When these “biological clocks” are disrupted, our bodies eventually readjust. However, some people have conditions that cause their circadian rhythms to be permanently out of sync with their surroundings.

Continue reading “Scientist Interview: Investigating Circadian Rhythms With Michael W. Young”

Phosphorus: Glowing, Flammable, and Essential to Our Cells

3 comments

Of the 118 known elements, scientists believe that 25 are essential for human biology. Four of these (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) make up a whopping 96 percent of our bodies. The other 21 elements, though needed in smaller quantities, perform fascinating and vital functions. Phosphorus is one such element. It has diverse uses outside of biology. For example, it can fuel festive Fourth of July fireworks! Inside our bodies, it’s crucial for a wide range of cell functions.

A graphic showing phosphorus’s abbreviation, atomic number, and atomic weight connected by lines to illustrations of DNA helixes, a match, and a glowing white pyramid. Phosphorus plays a vital role in life as part of DNA’s backbone. Red phosphorus helps ignite matches, and white phosphorus glows in the presence of oxygen. Credit: Compound Interest.
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 Link to external web site. Click to enlarge
Continue reading “Phosphorus: Glowing, Flammable, and Essential to Our Cells”

RNA Polymerase: A Target for New Antibiotic Drugs?

1 comment

DNA, with its double-helix shape, is the stuff of genes. But genes themselves are only “recipes” for protein molecules, which are molecules that do the real heavy lifting (or do much of the work) inside cells.

RNAP illustrated as a crab claw, clamping on a DNA double helix. Artist interpretation of RNAP grasping and unwinding a DNA double helix. Credit: Wei Lin and Richard H. Ebright.

Here’s how it works. A molecular machine called RNA polymerase (RNAP) travels along DNA to find a place where a gene begins. RNAP uses a crab-claw-like structure to grasp and unwind the DNA double helix at that spot. RNAP then copies (“transcribes”) the gene into messenger RNA (mRNA), a molecule similar to DNA.

The mRNA molecule travels to one of the cell’s many protein-making factories (ribosomes), which use the mRNA message as instructions for making a specific protein.

Continue reading “RNA Polymerase: A Target for New Antibiotic Drugs?”

Computational Biologist Melissa Wilson on Sex Chromosomes, Gila Monsters, and Career Advice

1 comment
Melissa Wilson wearing a floral dress and speaking beside a podium during her lecture. Dr. Melissa Wilson.
Credit: Chia-Chi Charlie Chang.

The X and Y chromosomes, also known as sex chromosomes, differ greatly from each other. But in two regions, they are practically identical, said Melissa Wilson Link to external web site, assistant professor of genomics, evolution, and bioinformatics at Arizona State University.

“We’re interested in studying how the process of evolution shaped the X and the Y chromosome in gene content and expression and how that subsequently affects literally everything else that comes with being a human,” she said at the April 10 NIGMS Director’s Early-Career Investigator (ECI) Lecture at NIH.

Continue reading “Computational Biologist Melissa Wilson on Sex Chromosomes, Gila Monsters, and Career Advice”