Alisa Machalek Headshot.

About Alisa Zapp Machalek

Alisa, who’s trained in biochemistry, writes articles, fact sheets, and publications about a variety of areas that include genetics, pharmacology, chemistry, and the body’s response to traumatic injury.

Excellence in Science Mentoring Honored in Washington, D.C.

Six NIGMS grantees are among this year’s winners of the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM)Link to external web site. The award was established by the White House in 1995. This year, it went to 27 individuals and 14 organizations.

PAESMEM recipients were honored during a 3-day eventLink to external web site in Washington, D.C. The event featured a gala presentation ceremony and a White House tour. In addition, each winner received a $10,000 grant from the National Science Foundation,Link to external web site which manages PAESMEM on behalf of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

The event also included the first-ever White House State-Federal STEM Education Summit. During the summit, awardees joined leaders in education and workforce development from across the nation, including U.S. territories and several Native American tribes, to discuss trends and future priorities in STEM education. The discussions will inform the development of the next Federal STEM Education 5-Year Strategic Plan,Link to external web site which must be updated every 5 years according to the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010.Link to external web site

The six NIGMS-supported PAESMEM winners are listed below. In this blog, we will highlight the work of each one, starting with Ann L. Chester and John A. Pollock.

  • Ann L. Chester, Ph.D., West Virginia University
  • John K. Haynes, Ph.D., Morehouse College
  • John A. Pollock, Ph.D., Duquesne University
  • Elba Elisa Serrano, Ph.D., New Mexico State University
  • Virginia Shepherd, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University
  • Maria da Graça H. Vicente, Ph.D., Louisiana State University
Ann L. Chester, Ph.D., West Virginia University
Headshot of Ann Chester, smiling.
Credit: West Virginia University.

Much of Ann Chester’s career has been devoted to encouraging students of underrepresented racial or economic status to pursue careers in the health sciences. By integrating local community issues into health and science education, she engages young people in research about real-world issues that impact them and their loved ones.

An assistant vice president for education partnerships at the West Virginia University (WVU) Health Sciences Center,Link to external web site Chester is also founder and director of the Health Sciences & Technology Academy (HSTA),Link to external web site a West Virginia mentoring program. HSTA began as a pilot program in 1994 and has been funded in part by the Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) program since 1997. It continues to help high school students overcome social and financial challenges so they can enter college and earn STEMLink to external web site-based undergraduate and graduate degrees.

Six students wearing protective goggles, placing samples on microscope slides.

HSTA students. Credit: Health Sciences & Technology Academy.

Chester has organized a supportive HSTA network of teachers, community members, and higher-education faculty to mentor generations of West Virginian students. Since 1998, 99 percent of HSTA graduates have attended college, and 84 percent of college graduates continue to live and work in West Virginia, further enriching local communities and economies.

HSTA has inspired similar programs across the country, including at Clemson University, the University of Tennessee, the University of Alaska, and the University of Pittsburgh. It has been so successful that TEDx invited Chester to give a presentation about the programLink to external web site in April 2018.

Additionally, Chester leads the WVU Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP),Link to external web site which supports the work of HSTA at a college level. The summer program, started in 1985 for students living in communities that are medically underserved, guides students toward careers in health care. Out of the 500 or so HCOP students, 68 percent earned degrees in the health professions.

Chester’s Presidential awardLink to external web site is one of several she has received for her work. Other honors include the West Virginia University School of Medicine’s Dean’s Award for Excellence in Service to the Community (2011), Ethel and Gerry Heebink Award for Distinguished Service to WVU (2015), WVU Mary Catherine Buswell Award for Outstanding Service for Women (2016), and Women in Science and Health Advanced Career Award (2017).

John A. Pollock, Ph.D., Duquesne University
Headshot of John A. Pollock, smiling.
Credit: Duquesne University.

John Pollock is passionate about mentoring. Along with teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in neuroscience and biology, and conducting scientific research, he’s mentored more than 150 students. About a quarter of these students have been from racial or ethnic groups underrepresented in STEMLink to external web site fields. Nearly all his mentees have successfully pursued graduate degrees.

Bringing Pollock’s efforts full circle, many of his former students have gone on to help underserved communities. They are now leaders in fields that include law, science, medicine, biomedical research, and teaching.

In addition to nudging students upward in their pursuit of education and careers, Pollock reaches down to impact the lives of the youngest members of the future STEM workforce. He helps organize science summer camps for Pittsburgh children from underserved areas; creates museum, planetarium, and travelling exhibits; and volunteers weekly as a reading tutor for 4- and 5-year-olds.

Furthermore, Pollock develops media resources to educate youth in STEM education and health literacy. He is founding director of A Partnership in Neuroscience Education, which has received funding from the Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) program since 2000. The program specializes in creating educational products that make science engaging and fun for teachers, students, and learners of all ages. These resources include videos, TV shows, video games, and award-winning apps for young people and the general public. One such app is the Darwin Synthetic Interview.Link to external web site

Another product that Pollock created and produced is the TV show Scientastic! The show explores science, health, and social issues through the perspective of young people, blending live-action and animation. The plot mixes fictional story arcs with interviews from real doctors and scientists in and around Pittsburgh. One SEPA-funded episode, Scientastic! Are You Sleeping?Link to external web site is a two-time winner of the Emmy Award and comes with an accompanying viewing guideLink to external web site and lesson plan.Link to external web site

Teenage girl sitting in bed surrounded by animated examples showing the benefits of 9 hours of sleep and the possible consequences of lack of sleep.

Scene from Scientastic! Are You Sleeping? Credit: Planet Earth Television.

In addition to the Presidential award,Link to external web site Pollock is the recipient of the Darwin Evolution/Revolution Award, NIH (2008); Carnegie Science Award, Special Achievement in Education (2011); Duquesne University Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching (2013); and the Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences Award for Excellence in Scholarship (2017). The Apple Corporation also named Pollock an Apple Distinguished Educator in 2017.

Interview With a Scientist – Rommie Amaro: Computational and Theoretical Model Builder

Many researchers who search for anti-cancer drugs have labs filled with chemicals and tissue samples. Not Rommie Amaro Link to external web site. Her work uses computers to analyze the shape and behavior of a protein called p53. Defective versions of p53 are associated with more human cancers than any other malfunctioning protein.

The goal of Amaro’s work is to find ways to restore the function of defective p53 protein in cancer cells. Her research team at the University of California, San Diego, discovered how to do just    that—according to their computer models, at least—by fitting small molecules into a pocket in malfunctioning p53 proteins. Amaro founded a biotechnology company to bring this computational work closer to a real cure for cancer.

She also explained her research in the 2017 DeWitt Stetten Jr. Lecture titled Computing Cures: Discovery Through the Lens of a Computational Microscope.

NIGMS has supported Amaro’s work since 2006 under P41GM103426, U01GM111528, R25GM114821, and F32GM077729.

RISE-ing Above: Embracing Physical Disability in the Lab

This is the fourth post in a new series highlighting NIGMS’ efforts toward developing a robust, diverse and well-trained scientific workforce.

Marina Nakhla

Marina Z. Nakhla
Hometown: West Los Angeles, California
Blogs For: Ottobock “Life in Motion,” Exit icon a forum for the amputee community, where she’s covered topics ranging from medical insurance to dating.
Influential Book: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger
Favorite TV Show: Grey’s Anatomy
Languages: English and Arabic
Unusual Fact: Gets a new pair of legs every year or two

Nakhla at her graduation from California State University, Northridge, where she graduated with a B.A. in psychology with honors. She is currently a second-year master’s student there studying clinical psychology. Credit: Christina Nakhla.

When Marina Z. Nakhla was just a toddler, she lost both of her legs. Now 22 and a graduate student at California State University, Northridge (CSUN), she has hurdled obstacles most of us never face.

Nakhla conducts research to better understand the decrease in mental abilities experienced by people with brain diseases. She is a scholar in CSUN’s Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) Program. This training program aims to enrich and diversify the pool of future biomedical researchers. Her long-term goal is to earn a Ph.D., to work as a clinical psychologist and to continue conducting research in neuropsychology. Along the way, she aspires to be a leader to her peers and an advocate for underrepresented people, particularly those with disabilities.

I first learned about Nakhla from an email message titled “CSUN RISE Student.” The acronym, pronounced “see [the] sun rise,” is an apt motto for a program that prepares students for a bright future in science. I believe it also encapsulates Nakhla’s positive, forward-looking mindset, despite the obstacles she has faced. Here’s her story:

Q: What got you interested in science?

A: Growing up, I was always drawn to science. I enjoyed learning how things work. I first became interested in psychology after reading The Catcher in the Rye in high school. I was so intrigued by Holden Caulfield’s thought processes and experiences of alienation and depression, despite the fact that he came from a wealthy family and went to a good school.

Why are some people more prone to experiencing depression? Why are some peoples’ thought processes so different than others? What factors contribute to resiliency? How can we help these people? These questions also made me think about the significant adversities that I had personally experienced. My desire to know more about the brain, as well as my personal experiences, instilled my passion to make a difference in others’ lives through science. Continue reading

Interview With a Scientist: Namandjé Bumpus, Drug Metabolism Maven

Medications are designed to treat diseases and make us healthier. But our bodies don’t know that. To them, medications are merely foreign molecules that need to be removed.

Before our bodies can get rid of these drug molecules, enzymes in the liver do the chemical work of preparing the molecules for removal. There are hundreds of different versions of these drug-processing enzymes. Some versions work quickly, others work slowly. In some cases, the versions you have determine how well a medication works for you, and whether you experience side effects from it.

Namandjé Bumpus Exit icon, a researcher at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is interested in how human bodies respond to HIV medications. She studies the enzymes that process these drugs. Her research team discovered that a genetic variant of a liver enzyme impacts the way some people handle a particular HIV drug. This variant is found in around 80 percent of people of European descent. She describes her work in this video.

Bumpus recently presented her research to a more scientifically advanced audience at an Early Career Investigator Lecture at the National Institutes of Health. Watch her talk titled Drug Metabolism, Pharmacogenetics and the Quest to Personalize HIV Treatment and Prevention.

Dr. Bumpus’ work is supported in part by NIGMS grant R01GM103853.

New Technology May Help Reduce Serious and Costly Post-Surgical Infections—Using Nothing but Air

According to a recent estimate, implant infections following hip and knee replacement surgeries in the U.S. may number 65,000 by 2020, with the associated healthcare costs exceeding $1 billion. A new small, high-tech device could have a significant impact on improving health outcomes and reducing cost for these types of surgeries. The device, Air Barrier System (ABS), attaches on top of the surgical drape and gently emits HEPA-filtered air over the incision site. By creating a “cocoon” of clean air, the device prevents airborne particles—including the bacteria that can cause healthcare-associated infections—from entering the wound.

Air Barrier System
The Air Barrier System creates a “cocoon” of clean air (gray area with size indicated) over a surgical site to remove airborne contaminants and reduce the risk of infection in patients who are receiving an artificial hip, a blood vessel graft, a titanium plate in the spine or other implants.

Scientists recently analyzed the effectiveness of the ABS device in a clinical study Exit icon—funded by NIGMS—involving nearly 300 patients. Each patient needed an implant, such as an artificial hip, a blood vessel graft in the leg or a titanium plate in the spine. Because implant operations involve inserting foreign materials permanently into the body, they present an even higher risk of infection than many other surgeries, and implant infections can cause life-long problems.

The researchers focused on one of the most common causes of implant infections—the air in the operating room. Although operating rooms are much cleaner than almost any other non-hospital setting, it’s nearly impossible to sterilize the entire room. Instead, the scientists focused on reducing contaminants directly over the surgical site. They theorized that if the air around the wound was cleaner, the number of implant infections might go down. Continue reading

Cool Tools: Pushing the Limits of High-Resolution Microscopy

Cell biologists would love to shrink themselves down and actually see, touch and hear the inner workings of cells. Because that’s impossible, they have developed an ever-growing collection of microscopes to study cellular innards from the outside. Using these powerful tools, researchers can exhaustively inventory the molecular bits and pieces that make up cells, eavesdrop on cellular communication and spy on cells as they adapt to changing environments.

In recent years, scientists have developed new cellular imaging techniques that allow them to visualize samples in ways and at levels of detail never before possible. Many of these techniques build upon the power of electron microscopy (EM) to see ever smaller details.

Unlike traditional light microscopy, EM uses electrons, not light, to create an image. To do so, EM accelerates electrons in a vacuum, shoots them out of an electron gun and focuses them with doughnut-shaped magnets onto a sample. When electrons bombard the sample, some pass though without being absorbed while others are scattered. The transmitted electrons land on a detector and produce an image, just as light strikes a detector (or film) in a camera to create a photograph.

This image, showing a single protein molecule, is a montage. It was created to demonstrate how dramatically cryo-EM has improved in recent years. In the past, cryo-EM was only able to obtain a blobby approximation of a molecule’s shape, like that shown on the far left. Now, the technique yields exquisitely detailed images in which individual atoms are nearly visible (far right). Color is artificially applied. Credit: Veronica Falconieri, Subramaniam Lab, National Cancer Institute.

Transmission electron microscopes can magnify objects more than 10 million times, enabling scientists to see the outline and some details of cells, viruses and even some large molecules. A relatively new form of transmission electron microscopy called cryo-EM enables scientists to view specimens in their natural or near-natural state without the need for dyes or stains.

In cryo-EM—the prefix cry- means “cold” or “freezing”—scientists freeze a biological sample so rapidly that water molecules do not have time to form ice crystals, which could shove cellular materials out of their normal place. Cold samples are more stable and can be imaged many times over, allowing researchers to iteratively refine the image, remove artifacts and produce even sharper images than ever before. Continue reading

The Irresistible Resistome: How Infant Diapers Might Help Combat Antibiotic Resistance (sort of)

Gautam Dantas
Credit: Pablo Tsukayama, Ph.D.,
Washington University School of Medicine
Gautam Dantas
Born: Mumbai, India
Most proud of: His family, which brings him joy and pride
Favorite lab tradition: OOFF! Official Optional Formal Fridays, when members of his lab can dress up, eat bread—made in the lab’s own bread machine—and drink beer and wine together at the end of the day
When not in the lab, he: Enjoys home brewing, pickling and canning, and spending time with his wife and children. He also attends musical performances, including those of his wife, who sings in the St. Louis Symphony Chorus
Advice to aspiring scientists: Pursue hobbies, take risks, explore beyond your comfort zone. “You can do a Ph.D., but also have other experiences.” He says his own outside activities refine his focus in the lab, keep him grounded and help him be an empathetic mentor to his students. Plus, he met his wife while singing in the chorus of Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota

When I Grow Up…

Gautam Dantas remembers the day in 10th grade when he first wanted to be a scientist. It was the day he had a new biology teacher, a visiting researcher from the U.S. The teacher passionately described his own biochemical studies of how organisms live together in communities. By the end of the class, Dantas had resolved to earn a Ph.D. in biochemistry.

He ended up doing much more—gaining expertise in computational biology, protein design and synthetic biology. He now combines his skills and knowledge in multifaceted research that spans four departments at Washington University in St. Louis. His goal: to better understand and help combat a vital public health threat—drug-resistant bacteria.

“Our motivation is that we are living in the antibiotic era, and antibiotic resistance is getting out of control,” Dantas says. “We have very few new antibiotics we can use, so we’re kind of scrambling [to find new ways to treat bacterial diseases].”

His research focuses on one of the groups most vulnerable to bacterial infections—newborn babies.

According to his lab’s website Exit icon, the research is “at the interface of microbial genomics, ecology, synthetic biology, and systems biology,” and it aims “to understand, harness, and engineer the biochemical processing potential of microbial communities.” They do it by scrounging around in infant diapers.

Antibiotic Angst

Since their introduction in the 1940s, antibiotic drugs have saved countless lives. Simultaneously, they weeded out strains of bacteria easily killed by the drugs, allowing drug-resistant strains to thrive. Every year, at least 2 million people in the U.S. become infected and at least 23,000 die from drug-resistant bacteria, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Continue reading

NIGMS Is on Instagram!

Science is beautiful.

For several years, we’ve used this blog to highlight pictures we think are cool, scientifically relevant and visually striking. The images were created by NIGMS-funded researchers in the process of doing their research. Many come from our Life: Magnified collection, which features dozens of stunning photos of life, close-up. We’ll continue to bring you interesting images and information here on Biomedical Beat, but if you can’t get enough of them, we have a new way to share our visual content with you: Instagram.

We’re pleased to announce the launch of our NIGMS Instagram account. We’ll highlight gorgeous images, and bring you the science behind them—straight from our mobile device to yours. Instagram lets us label our images with subject-specific hashtags. You can find our pictures by going on Instagram and searching for #NIGMS. If you’re already an Instagram user, you can follow us @NIGMS_NIH. You can even see our page using a web browser at https://www.instagram.com/nigms_nih/ Exit icon. Let us know what you think!

Also, if you have any stunning images or videos that relate to scientific areas supported by NIGMS, please send them to us. They might end up on our Instagram feed!

See those finger-like projections? They are called villi. This image shows the small intestine, where most of the nutrients from the food we eat are absorbed into the bloodstream. The villi increase the organ’s surface area, making nutrient absorption more efficient. Credit: National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research.
#science Exit icon #biology Exit icon #research Exit icon #cells Exit icon #cellbiology Exit icon #microscopy Exit icon #nigms Exit icon #scienceisbeautiful Exit icon #sciart Exit icon #nigms Exit icon #nih Exit icon #NCMIR Exit icon #UCSD Exit icon #smallbowel Exit icon #nutrition Exit icon #nutrients Exit icon #nutrient Exit icon #anatomyphysiology Exit icon

We need zinc. It’s an essential nutrient for growth and development, fending off invading microbes, healing injuries, and all sorts of cellular processes. We get the mineral through our diet, but people in certain parts of the world don’t get enough. Researchers study how plants acquire and process zinc, hoping to find ways to increase the nutrient in food crops. Using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technology, scientists created this heat map of zinc in a leaf from a plant called Arabidopsis thaliana (zinc levels from lowest to highest: blue, green, red, white). Credit: Suzana Car and Mary Lou Guerinot, Dartmouth College.
#science Exit icon #biology Exit icon #research Exit icon #botany Exit icon #plant Exit icon #arabidopsis Exit icon #zinc Exit icon #microscopy Exit icon #synchrotron Exit icon #x-ray Exit icon #modelorganism Exit icon #leaf Exit icon #heatmap Exit icon #scienceisbeautiful Exit icon #nigms Exit icon #nih Exit icon

Beautiful brain! This image shows the cerebellum, which is the brain’s locomotion control center. Every time you shoot a basketball, tie your shoe or chop an onion, your cerebellum fires into action. Found at the base of your brain, the cerebellum is a single layer of tissue with deep folds like an accordion. People with damage to this region of the brain often have difficulty with balance, coordination and fine motor skills. Credit: Tom Deerinck and Mark Ellisman, NCMIR
#science Exit icon #biology Exit icon #research Exit icon #cerebellum Exit icon #neuroscience Exit icon #neurobiology Exit icon #brain Exit icon #brains Exit icon #brainimages Exit icon #neuroanatomy Exit icon #microscopy Exit icon #scienceisbeautiful Exit icon #sciart Exit icon #nigms Exit icon #nih Exit icon #NCMIR Exit icon #UCSD Exit icon

Scientists can learn a lot by studying pigment cells, which give animals their colorful skins, eyes, hair and scales. We can even gain insight into skin cancers, like melanoma, that originate from pigment cells. Pigment cells can form all sorts of patterns, like these stripes on the fin of a pearl danio, a type of tropical minnow. Credit: David Parichy, University of Washington.
#biology Exit icon #marinebiology Exit icon #marinescience Exit icon #cell Exit icon #pigmentcell Exit icon #xanthophore Exit icon #science Exit icon #research Exit icon #cellbiology Exit icon #microscopy Exit icon #scienceisbeautiful Exit icon #scienceiscool Exit icon #zebrafish Exit icon #universityofwashington Exit icon

Lighting Up the Promise of Gene Therapy for Glaucoma

Retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.

Retinal ganglion cells in the mouse retina that do (bright, yellow spots throughout) and do not (blue streaks, mostly along the edges) contain a specific gene that scientists introduced with a virus. Credit: Kenyoung (“Christine”) Kim, Wonkyu Ju and Mark Ellisman, National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego.

What looks like the gossamer wings of a butterfly is actually the retina of a mouse, delicately snipped to lay flat and sparkling with fluorescent molecules. Researchers captured this image while investigating the promise of gene therapy for glaucoma, a progressive eye disease. It all happened at the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research Exit icon (NCMIR) at the University of California, San Diego.

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. It is characterized by the slow, steady death of certain nerve cells in the retina. If scientists can prevent the death of these cells, which are called retinal ganglion cells, it might be possible to slow the progression of glaucoma. Some researchers are examining the possibility of using gene therapy to do just that.

A major challenge of gene therapy is finding a way to get therapeutic genes into the right cells without damaging the cells in any way. Scientists have had success using a non-disease-causing virus (adeno-associated serotype 2) for this task. Continue reading

Newly Identified Cell Wall Construction Workers: A Novel Antibiotic Target?

SEDS

A family of proteins abbreviated SEDS (bright, pink) help build bacterial cell walls, so they are a potential target for new antibiotic drugs. Credit: Rudner lab, Harvard Medical School.

Scientists have identified a new family of proteins that, like the targets of penicillin, help bacteria build their cell walls. The finding might reveal a new strategy for treating a range of bacterial diseases.

The protein family is nicknamed SEDS, because its members help control the shape, elongation, division and spore formation of bacterial cells. Now researchers have proof that SEDS proteins also play a role in constructing cell walls. This image shows the movement of a molecular machine that contains a SEDS protein as it constructs hoops of bacterial cell wall material.

Any molecule involved in building or maintaining cell walls is of immediate interest as a possible target for antibiotic drugs. That’s because animals, including humans, don’t have cell walls—we have cell membranes instead. So disabling cell walls, which bacteria need to survive, is a good way to kill bacteria without harming patients.

This strategy has worked for the first antibiotic drug, penicillin (and its many derivatives), for some 75 years. Now, many strains of bacteria have evolved to resist penicillins—and other antibiotics—making the drugs less effective.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, drug-resistant strains of bacteria Exit icon infect at least 2 million people, killing more than 20,000 of them in the U.S. every year. Identifying potential new drug targets, like SEDS proteins, is part of a multi-faceted approach to combating drug-resistant bacteria.